Capsicum baccatum. This eye-catching variation on the Bishop's Cap pepper variety is a new, award winning hybrid with superior plant vigour and higher yield than its OP cousins. The flattened disc shaped pods of Mad Hatter provide a crisp and crunchy texture for snacking at the mature green or red stage. Grown in arid conditions, the peppers will take on a slight heat around the seed cavity, but otherwise the flesh remains sweet and mild. This All America Selections Winner grows to a maximum height of 122cm (48"), but it's suitable for large containers and super productive in open field or high tunnel settings.
Matures in 65-70 days to green, 85-90 days to red. (Hybrid seeds)
Peppers are tropical plants that need lots of heat to be productive. Well grown in a warm summer, they are the gardener’s triumph. Hot peppers often do better in a cool summer than the large bell peppers. If the hot peppers have not coloured up fully on pepper plants, pull up the whole plant and hang in a warm dry area. Continue reading below for tips on how to grow peppers from seed.
Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, and C. chinense
Season & Zone
Season: Warm season.
Peppers need plenty of time to mature before they will bloom and set fruit. Start indoors six to eight weeks before the last frost date, and grow under bright lights. Transplant only when weather has really warmed up. Night time low temperatures should be consistently above 12°C (55°F) before hardening off pepper plants and transplanting outdoors. Soil temperature for germination: 25-29°C (78-85°F). Seeds should sprout in 10 – 21 days.
Sow indoors 5mm-1cm (¼-½”) deep. Keep soil as warm as possible. Seedling heating mats speed germination. Try to keep seedlings at 18-24°C (64-75°F) in the day, and 16-18°C (61-64°F) at night. Before they become root-bound, transplant them into 8cm (3″) pots. For greatest possible flower set, try to keep them for 4 weeks at night, about 12°C (55°F). Then transplant them into 15cm (6″) pots, bringing them into a warm room at night, about 21°C (70°F).
Days to Maturity: From transplant date.
Soil should have abundant phosphorus and calcium, so add lime and compost to the bed at least three weeks prior to transplanting. Mix ½ cup of balanced organic fertilizer beneath each plant. Though peppers will tolerate dry soil, they will only put on good growth if kept moist. Harden off before planting out 30-60cm (12-24″) apart. Five gallon containers also work well, but require good drainage and regular irrigation. Using plastic mulch with a cloche can increase the temperature by a few degrees. Pinch back growing tips to encourage leaf production. This helps shade the developing fruits and prevents sun-scald in hot summers.
When the fruit is large and firm it is ready to pick. Or wait for the fruit to ripen further turning red, yellow, brown, or purple. The sweetness and vitamin C content go up dramatically as the fruit changes colour. If you pick green, the total numbers of peppers harvested will increase. Fruit that sets after late August will not usually develop or ripen. Pull out the entire bush just before the first frost and hang it upside down in a warm, dry place to ripen hot peppers.
In optimal conditions at least 65% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 2 years.
Diseases & Pests
To prevent rot and wilt, plant in well-drained soils and follow a strict 4-year crop rotation.
If cutworms are a problem, use paper collars at the plant base. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV): young growth is malformed and leaves are mottled with yellow. To prevent it: wash hands after handling tobacco (including Nicotiana), before touching peppers. Control aphids, which spread the disease.