Hardy annuals that are variously known as pansies, Johnny-Jump-Up, and Heartsease.

Latin
Violoa tricolor & V. x wittrockiana
Family: Violoaceae

Difficulty
Challenging

Season & Zone
Exposure: Full sun to partial shade
Zone: 3-10

Timing
Start indoors 10-12 weeks before planting out. For spring planting after last frost, that means up to 3 months growing time indoors. On the coast you would sow seeds indoors for early spring planting in early January. Otherwise, sow direct outdoors in summer to early autumn. For winter-flowering pansies in Zones 7-9, start your seeds in mid to late June.

Starting
Even though the seeds are tiny, they need to be sown 5mm (¼”) deep. Keep the soil at 18-25°C (65-75°F), in complete darkness until they germinate in around 14 days. Then provide bright light to keep plants compact. Space at 15-23cm (6-9″) in the garden.

Growing
After germination, violas are easy. Fertilize once or twice in early growth and provide a mulch around plants to keep roots cool as weather warms. Deadhead to prevent self-sowing, particularly with Johnny-Jump-Ups.

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