Farm Box Program Continues

CSA Farm Box Program
Farm Box Week Two
Farm Box Pickup Week Two

After learning how the system works, it becomes immediately a routine part of our week. Every Tuesday we look forward to finding out what’s in this week’s CSA farm box program. Lydia at Cropthorne Farm does up a chalk board each week, and it’s kind of smart marketing. Already we have “box envy” for her customers who opted for the Medium size. They get a few more items each week, and the diversity is compelling. In week two we got carrots, cucumbers, spinach, radishes and the first of (no doubt) many zucchinis. Although the radishes were gorgeous, perfect, and huge, we traded them for a bag of mixed salad greens from the swap box. This is just the perfect amount of veg for two people, and it was all used up by the following Tuesday…

Farm Box Week Three
Farm Box Pickup Week Three

Kohlrabi and napa cabbage (sui choi) accompanied beets, a giant lettuce, and succulent Warba potatoes this past week. To help her customers deal with “challenging” vegetables, Lydia posts recipes in a weekly newsletter – again, this is very good marketing for the farm, and builds original content for her website. We made a small batch of kimchi with the cabbage, and a delicious cole slaw with the kohlrabi. If you don’t use these vegetables regularly, you can forget how enjoyable they are. Plus everything is so fresh, it smells great and tastes amazing. Once more, there was a little envy happening for that Medium Box.

The pleasure continues, and the anticipation of each new box is simply value added entertainment. We are rethinking our meal plans for the week now, and enjoying our engagement with the farm. I’ll keep recording this as it goes, and report every couple of weeks.

About Cabbage

About Cabbage

Known since ancient Greece and Rome, the modern cabbage is a descendant of wild mustard. The Roman statesman Cato the Elder wrote of its medicinal properties, “It is the cabbage which surpasses all other vegetables.” The seventeenth century English physician and botanist Nicholas Culpeper recommended using cabbage to treat hoarseness, snake bites, kidney stones, liver disease, consumption, eye troubles, cankers, swelling, and other maladies. But this wealth of benefits is not without its drawbacks, as Culpeper points out:

I know not what metal their bodies were made of; this I am sure, Cabbages are extremely windy, whether you take them as meat or as medicine: yea, as windy meat as can be eaten, unless you eat bag-pipes or bellows, and they are but seldom eaten in our days; and Colewort flowers are something more tolerable, and the wholesomer food of the two.

While there are probably more sophisticated treatments for snakebite than the application of cabbage, it is certainly true that cabbage is good for you. One 100g serving contains over 60% of the recommended daily dose of vitamin C. It’s also very high in vitamin B6, folate, protein, and dietary fibre. Cabbages contain the amino acid glutamine, which is a strong, natural anti-inflammatory. Homeopathic treatments for peptic ulcers call for regular drinks of fresh cabbage juice.

In her wonderful book, The Joy of Cooking, Irma Rombauer has an entry “About Cabbage.” Here, she includes all the cabbage-related Brassicas: head cabbage, savoy, cauliflower and broccoli, Brussels sprouts, collards and kale, Swiss chard, “bok-choi and its better-known cousin Chinese cabbage, or pe tsai.” She then lists three recipes where the term “cabbage” includes all of these varieties, on their own or in combination. This speaks to the approach we have traditionally taken to Brassicas, but it is a disservice to their diversity.

Diverse cabbage forms
L to R: Pixie, Early Jersey Wakefield, Charmant, and KY Cross Taiwan Cabbage

The wild cabbage, in early European civilization, migrated as a staple food crop, and strains of it were established in the north, in Scandinavia and the British Isles. Some wild cabbage was cultivated in central Europe and the east, and also in the areas that became Portugal, Belgium, and Holland. Every time this staple food plant became established among farming cultures, it began to change through selective breeding. The end result of this travel and breeding over centuries is a modern, familiar spectrum of vegetables, often just referred to as “the Brassicas,” or Cole crops.

Through selective breeding, the single species Brassica oleracea was cultivated to produce common vegetable types that include collards and kale, Chinese broccoli, cauliflower, Romanesco broccoli, broccoflower, Brussels sprouts, and conventional broccoli. The closely related (genetically similar) species Brassica rapa includes mizuna, raab (rapini), Chinese cabbage, pac choi, and turnips.

In many cultures cabbage is a base ingredient, and examples are nearly too numerous to name. The leaves can be used to create cabbage rolls, chopped into cole slaw, and added to soups and stir-fries. Cabbage is frequently pickled or preserved to create sumptuous dishes from kim-chi to sauerkraut. The versatility of cabbage in the kitchen, coupled with its easy growth in all cool and temperate climates has left a legacy of folksy recipes.

Red Jewel Cabbage

Like other cold-hardy Brassicas, overwintered cabbage has great flavour and a subtle sweetness. Refrigerate cabbages as soon as possible, regardless of the time of year, and use plastic bags with holes cut for ventilation. Cabbage reacts with aluminum cookware, and creates a fairly intense smell while cooking, so use steel, glass, or ceramic pots. The smell increases the longer cabbage is cooked because its sugars are released when it boils. Slice cabbage thinly and cook it quickly for the best result.

Ermosa Cabbage Seeds

Early cabbages for summer harvests grow quickly, to a smaller size in tighter spacing. Summer varieties don’t handle cold very well, so be sure to harvest them when they are ready, and well before frost. Set them out as transplants in late March, or direct sow them from April to the end of June. Early cabbages need the best soil and the most protection from insects (use lightweight row cover), but produce the most delicate heads.

Late cabbages take 90 — 120 days to develop, and are grown for storage or making fresh sauerkraut and kimchi. Don’t sow these ones before June or the heads will grow pointy and may split as the days get longer. Dutch and English growers have developed “very late” cabbage varieties, which develop in late fall to December from June sowings. These are ideal for winter harvesting. Some may hold until March. Late savoy cabbages (“savoy” refers to their crinkled leaves) are the hardiest of all for this purpose.

Overwintered varieties are meant to be harvested the following spring from early fall plantings. Planted in early September, the heads grow to around 15cm (6”) thick before the short daylight and cool temperatures slow them down. Side dress these with complete organic fertilizer in the spring, and harvest them in April and May before they bolt.

Deadon Cabbage

How to Grow Cabbage:

Difficulty: Cabbage is moderately easy to grow.

Timing: This is all about the variety you’re growing. Sow early cabbage indoors in March for transplanting from April to June. Cabbage is relatively hardy, so you can move them outdoors 3-4 weeks before the last average frost date after sowing 4-6 weeks earlier. The premise is to provide a warm atmosphere for germination, and then a cool climate for growing on. Direct sow overwintering cabbage outdoors in July.

Sowing: Sow 3-4 seeds in each spot (or pot if transplanting) where you want a plant to grow, and then thin to the strongest plant. Sow 5mm (¼”) deep.

Soil: Cabbage is a heavy feeder and requires steady growth. Use humus-rich soil amended with well-rotted manure. Mix ½ cup of complete organic fertilizer into the soil beneath each plant. Aim for a pH of 6.5 to 7.2. If the pH is lower than 6.5, add lime at least 3 weeks before planting. All cabbages need a fairly neutral soil. If the pH is 6.5 or lower, add lime three weeks prior to planting.

Growing: The goal is slow, steady growth through even watering and feeding. Heads of early varieties can split from over-maturity, rapid growth after heavy rain, or irrigation after a dry spell. Splits can be delayed by twisting the plant or cultivating deeply next to the row in order to break roots and slow growth down. Fall and winter varieties stand in the garden longer without splitting. If growth seems to slow, side-dress with a little more complete organic fertilizer.

Harvest: Cut heads when they feel hard. Leave the big outer leaves in the field, and use a sharp knife to separate the head.

Storage: Ideally, store cabbage just above freezing with high humidity and good air circulation. Root cellars are perfect for this. Young, green heads store the best. Eat or process damaged heads first, and only store the best ones.

Seed info: In optimum conditions, at least 80% of seeds will germinate. Soil temperature for germination: 10-30°C (50-85°F). Usual seed life: 3 years.

Growing for seed: Isolate from all other B. oleracea varieties by 1,500m if growing for seed.

Pests & Disease: Crop rotation is central to preventing problems. Do not plant cabbage in soil where any Brassicas have been grown in the past 4 years. Watch seedlings closely for any sign of disease, black stems, or roots with lumps. Recommended companion plants include celery, dill, onions, and potatoes. Celery is thought to improve cabbage growth and health. Clover inter-planted with cabbage may reduce cabbage aphids and cabbage worms by interfering with their colonization and attracting predatory ground beetles. Prevent damage from the caterpillars of the Small White butterfly by using lightweight row cover, and companion planting with umbelifers.

All creatures great and small eat seedlings

Organic gardeners share one challenge that has many faces – how to nurse newly emerged seedlings along to the point when they are strong enough to defend themselves. Because seedlings are so tender and tasty, and low to the ground, they are easy pickings for a host of animals, from the very tiny to the enormous. Everything from wireworms and millipedes up to racoons and deer are perfectly happy to chomp on your veggies, sometimes eradicating a whole bed of newly emerged plants.

Every spring I receive a host of emails asking, “How to I protect my seedlings from [insert pest here]?” The best advice I can offer is to correctly identify the pest in question, and try to understand its behaviour and needs. Slugs and rabbits have very little in common other than a shared taste for vegetables, so the strategies to control them are just as different. I’m going to start with the most common garden pests, and try to offer some sound advice.

1. Slugs & Snails

During the day time, these gastropods need to take shelter from the sun. Snails can withdraw into the climate control of their shells, but slugs have to seek deep shade or total shade. This is their greatest weakness, and the basis of the best organic strategies to controlling them. First, water first thing in the morning, after they have crept into their daytime hiding spots. Watering in the evening creates the ideal environment for both slugs and snails, and provides an invitation to come and feast. By watering in the morning, the garden is relatively dry by evening, especially in summer. Second, remove ALL the possible hiding spots from your garden that aren’t strictly necessary – unused pots, bricks, boards, plastic mulch, anything they can hide under, particularly where moisture might gather.

Slugs can be trapped by leaving out little tubs of beer, as they are attracted to the smell of the yeast, and will drown in it. Even simpler than that method is to intentionally leave one obvious hiding spot out overnight, encourage them to gather there, and then walk them off the premises the next morning. Plywood works well for this kind of trap. Simply leave a piece between your beds and collect the slugs the next morning.

There is much wisdom on various materials slugs do not like to cross. The idea is that you make a barrier around your garden, and the slugs won’t venture over the material you lay down. I have personally experimented with crushed eggshells, and was not impressed with the results. Human hair, collected from a barbershop, is another option that, in my experience, doesn’t work well enough and looks very strange. Copper is another material that slugs do not like to come in contact with, and we have had very positive feedback about Slug Shield copper mesh. It seems to me that Slug Shield would work particularly well with raised beds, as the boundaries are so well defined.

2. Woodlice

These are the little grey-coloured, armor plated chaps that seem to be available in inexhaustible supply in coastal gardens. They are crustaceans of the suborder Oniscidea, which represents around 3,000 species. Some of them, in the appropriately named genus Armadillidium, can roll into a perfect ball as a means of defense. These are commonly called pill bugs, as opposed to the ones that can’t roll up, which are known as sow bugs. Because they are crustaceans, they need water to live. Like slugs, the damper your garden is, the more abundantly they will come. So water in the morning, and remove hiding spots.

Woodlice are a good example of why the “good bug/bad bug” approach doesn’t work well. While they may feed on tender seedlings (particularly ones already damaged by slugs or snails), they play a key role in breaking organic matter down into your soil. The kinds of food woodlice can feed on are inedible to many other garden organisms, but what they leave behind can be then broken down further by bacteria and fungi. They are key to healthy composting systems, so eradicating them is a poor choice. Just try to keep your garden as dry as possible.

Okay – so the same strategies can be applied to both slugs, snails, and woodlice. If they just can’t be controlled in your garden, you might contemplate using only transplanted vegetables, and giving up on direct sowing seeds. Established plants have an easier time coping against pests than seedlings do.

3. Specific insects

We have evolved past the old-school dinosaur way of thinking that says, “Just spray the whole area with malathion or diazanon, and kill all the insects at once.” No. That’s not going to work. What organic gardeners want is MORE insects, not less, and we want them to be present in sufficient numbers that they will come to a harmonious balance in our gardens and in our soil. So when you find damage to your crops or ornamental plants, it’s essential to correctly identify the culprit.

If you can’t see and identify the culprit insect, try to identify the damage it’s causing to your crop. Here are some typical examples.

Small, pin-like holes appear in the middle of leaves in mustard, lettuce, and spinach – almost always flea beetles.

Sudden, dramatic damage to leaves of Brassicas (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, kohlrabi) – almost always cabbage moth (true name Small White butterfly).

Orange-coloured “tracks” or erratic, slightly indented lines around carrot roots – almost always carrot rust fly larvae.

Small holes directly into hard root crops like carrots, beets, or potato – almost always wireworm.

Entomologists categorize groups of like insects into “orders.” The order Lepidoptera, for example, includes all moths and butterflies. Beetles are all within the order Coleoptera; flies, Diptera; bees, wasps, and ants, Hymenoptera; and so on. Not only do these groups show how insects are related, but they offer helpful guidance to gardeners needing pest control. For instance, the bacteria known as Bacillus thuringiensis can be used as a biological control for all Lepidopterans (moths & butterflies), but it will not harm any other types of insects. Predatory nematodes can be applied as a biological control for soil-dwelling beetle larvae, but they won’t harm, say, earthworms, or other beneficial soil creatures.

For information on how to deal with specific insects on specific plant groups, I’m going to refer you to our website articles here, rather than expand on this blog. I just want to get the point across that the organic approach hinges on correctly identifying the pest in question, and then taking action appropriate to the one insect.

4. Mammals

The tops of your radishes have all been nibbled above the soil line? A whole bed of seedlings have been “topped” overnight? Curious poops are appearing, buried or otherwise? Correctly identifying the culprit mammal in question will also help provide guidance to its control, but producing a physical barrier between the mammal and the crop is the most obvious first step. For rabbits and rats, chicken wire can be effective enough that they will simply give up and go on to greener pastures. Cats need to have a more obvious barrier put between them and your nice new raised beds. Try building a lightweight frame roughly the same size as your raised bed. PVC pipe works really well for this. Then stretch any kind of durable small-holed netting over the frame, and leave this over your beds during the entire time your seedlings are coming up. Once the planted bed is full of plants, it will not be attractive as a litter box, and the frame can be put away for a year.

I have family on Vancouver Island that have tried every method of control possible. The conclusion to years of research is that if you want to have a rabbit and deer free area in which to grow vegetables, herbs, and flowers, you simply have to build a fence. It’s got to be high enough that deer can’t jump over it, and constructed so that rabbits can’t wiggle through at the bottom. Rabbit and deer repellents are of limited use. They are typically made out of dried deer blood, and need to be applied regularly enough that the fresh scent will alarm deer and make them take flight. But in a dry summer, when grazing is bad, deer will just take food wherever they can get it, so this is not 100% reliable.

All mammals have sensitive mucous membranes. A mix of soapy water with a small amount of cayenne pepper can be sprayed on areas where physical barriers are not possible, or when the pest in question is too small (mice, voles) to control with a conventional fence. Cayenne works because it causes temporary pain to the mammal in question, and I have mixed feelings about it. I prefer physical barriers, and would only use it as a last resort.

5. Animals that are not the problem

I get the odd phone call or email from customers wanting to rid themselves of perceived pests that aren’t really pests. If you’ve got them, leave them alone, or learn to live with them.

Moles are carnivores that tunnel through the soil in search of earthworms and grubs. The only damage they may do to your crops is inadvertently displace roots as they dig new tunnels. Unless there is a physical barrier to prevent them from leaving your area, they will eventually move along. So just ignore them.

Ants are not pests. True, carpenter ants can cause serious problems if they nest in your house, and ants can be a nuisance indoors, but in the garden, they are like their Hymenopteran cousins the wasps. They remove other insects from your garden, and in most cases are entirely beneficial. There is a common misdiagnosis that ants carry aphids up into fruit trees in order to “farm” them by gathering the aphids’ honeydew. While ants certainly do harvest honeydew from aphids, they do not carry the aphids into the tree. If you “have seen them doing this,” please have a closer look. The ants are on the tree because there are aphids present. The aphids are on the tree because, nine times out of ten, the tree is under stress. Instead of focusing on the ants, focus on the health of the tree – apply lime and adequate water, and apply fertilizer. Maybe cut back grasses from the base of the tree. Deal with the aphids with blasts of water from a hose, or apply Safer’s soap. Don’t bother with tanglefoot or vaseline. These treatments will only make your tree sticky, and are not effective against aphids, or beneficial ants.

Spittlebugs are not pests. These are the tiny yellow/green guys who show up on the stems of flowering plants in late spring – they’re out in my garden at the moment, quite noticeable on lavender stems. While it’s true that they suck plant juices in the same way that aphids do, they only going to be present for a couple of weeks. That’s because they are the nymph stage of the adult insect known as the Froghopper (order Hemiptera). Froghoppers and their close cousins leafhoppers, are the very small, hard-shelled creatures that suddenly land on your shirt when you’re out in the garden. As soon as you touch them, they spring away with incredible force, and you don’t see them again. If you see spittlebug nests, look the other way and go on with your weeding.

In closing, I think it is most helpful to take a non-adversarial approach to gardening. By cultivating healthy soil and ecologically diverse gardens, we can produce healthier plants with better resistance to pests and disease. We can exploit predatory wasps, ladybird beetles, and other beneficial insects, by luring them to our gardens with the appropriate plant choices. Grow dill! Plant Alyssum. Let last year’s parsley flower and go to seed. Keep your growing area tidy, but diverse. My friend and colleague Brian Campbell recommends dedicating an area of your garden where you never set foot. Leave it aside to act as an undisturbed natural environment where nature can truly take its course.

For further reading, I recommend two books: The Organic Gardener’s Handbook of Natural Pest and Disease Control by Bradley, Ellis, and Martin is an excellent reference style book for identifying and controlling insect pests, as well as avoiding plant diseases.

Deer-Resistant Landscaping by Neil Soderstrom is an incredibly helpful book for anyone dealing with deer – as well as 20 other mammals that can cause problems. You might not find the chapters on peccaries or armadillos as helpful as those on mice and gophers, but I love the approach of this book. Identify, understand, and control, all with the least harm involved.

Nitrogen fixers

Here’s a bit of geeky plant science for you. David Bradbeer at the Delta Farmland & Wildlife Trust sent me this great image of the roots of white clover. You can plainly see bumps along the roots that are called nodules. Over millions of years, the plant has evolved a symbiotic relationship with certain species of soil-dwelling bacteria called Rhizobia. This group of bacteria has the ability to take nitrogen from the atmosphere and “fix” it by metabolizing it into ammonium, which is a nitrogen compound that the plants can make use of. The plants benefit by using this extra nitrogen to compete with their neighbours by growing stronger and faster. Without the nodules along the plants’ roots, the bacteria could not exist, let alone function. It’s a win-win situation.

Clover is a member of the family Fabaceae (all are called Legumes), and many plants within this family share this quirky talent to host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia. Some of the best known of these plants are soy, peanuts, beans, peas, lupins, sweet peas, chickpeas, licorice, carob, alfalfa, and vetch. Each plant has a relationship with its own species of Rhizobia, although there is some cross-over. When the plants are harvested or die back, the nitrogen (in ammonium form) is left in the soil, making it more fertile for the next crop that is planted. Nitrogen, after all, is the most difficult of the major plant nutrients to maintain in soil.

P1120554It makes sense, then, that organic farmers would grow a crop of nitrogen fixing plants and then till them under before planting a marketable crop. Tilling the plants under takes advantage of their organic matter as well as the nitrogen in their root nodules. In conventional farming, the grower might simply apply hundreds of pounds of ammonium nitrate to her field, simply spreading the raw chemical before planting. In organic farming, a simple cover crop of nitrogen-fixing legumes is planted and grown for around three months before the main crop goes in.

Seed inoculants are simply a powdery form of Rhizobia. Seeds are dampened and then coated with this powder prior to planting. This introduces an abundant population of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia into the soil at the time of planting, and kick-starts the whole process. If legume seeds are not inoculated, they will still develop root nodules and become hosts to Rhizobia, but more slowly.

Taking advantage of nitrogen-fixing cover crops seems very similar, in my view, to planting flowers that attract beneficial insects like predatory wasps. The grower is able to encourage natural processes to take place that will benefit the crop plants. No chemicals are used. Nothing unnatural takes place. The whole system is sustainable and environmentally sound.